CNC.SCHOOL — Integrated solutions for manufacturing industries (CNC)

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A AXISThe axis of rotary motion of a machine tool member or slide about the X axis
A-SPLINEThe Akima spline progresses tangentially through the programmed nodes (3rd degree polynomial). An Akima interpolation is a continuously differentiable sub-spline interpolation.
ABRASIVE - NATURAL(sandstone, emery, corundum, diamonds) or artificial (silicon carbide, aluminum oxide) material used for making grinding wheels, sandpaper, abrasive cloth, and lapping compounds.
ABRASIVE WHEELSWheels of a hard abrasive, such as Carborundum used for grinding
ABSOLUTE ACCURACYAccuracy as measured frcm a reference which must be specified.
ABSOLUTE DIMENSIONA dimension expressed with respect to the initial zero point of a co-ordinate axis
ABSOLUTE LINEAR SCALEDetector for an absolute position on a straight line.
ABSOLUTE POINT (ROBOTS)Equivalent to absolute co-ordinates in NC machines. The co-ordinates of a data point are defined in relation to an absolute zero
ABSOLUTE POSITION DETECTORDetector that indicates the absolute coordinates of a machine element, relative to a selected origin.
ABSOLUTE PROGRAMMINGMethod of programming the coordinates of a tool movement end point.
ABSOLUTE PULSE CODERRotary absolute position detector.
ABSOLUTE READOUTA display of the true slide position as derived from the position commands within the control system.
ABSOLUTE SYSTEMNC system in which all positional dimensions, both input and feedback, are measured from a fixed point of origin.
ABSOLUTE VALUEDistance or angle from the origin of a coordinate system.
ACCANDECAcceleration and deceleration) Acceleration and deceleration in feedrate; it provides smooth starts and stops when operating under NC and when changing from one feedrate value to another
ACCELERATION WITH JERK LIMITATIONTo obtain the optimum acceleration gradient for the machine while at the same time minimizing mechanical wear and tear, the machining program offers a choice between instantaneous acceleration and continuous (smooth) acceleration.
ACCEPTANCE TESTA series of tests which evaluate the performance and capabilities of both software and hardware
ACCESS RIGHTSPrograms and other files are protected by a level system of access restrictions
ACCESS TIMEThe time interval between the instant at which information is: 1. called for frcm storage and the instant at which delivery is completed, i.e., the read time. 2. Ready for storage and the instant at which storage is completed, i.e., the write time.
ACCUMULATORA part of the logical-arithmetic unit of a computer. It may be used for intermediate storage to form algebraic suns, or for other intermediate operations
ACCURACY1. Measured by the difference between the actual position of the 2. Conformity of an indicated value The accuracy machine slide and the position demanded of a true value, i.e., an actual or an accepted standard value of a control system is expressed as the deviation or difference between the ultimately controlled variable and its ideal value, usually in the steady state or at sampled instants
ACCURATEConforms to a standard or tolerance.
ACME THREADA screw thread having a 29 degree included angle. Used largely for feed and adjusting screws on machine tools.
ACTIVE STORAGEThat part of the control logic which holds the information while it is being transformed into motion
ACTUAL CUTTING FEEDRATE DISPLAYDisplay of a tool feedrate per minute.
ACUTE ANGLEAn angle that is less than 90 degrees.
ADAPTERA tool holding device for fitting together various types or sizes of cutting tools to make them interchangeable on different machines
ADAPTIVE CONTROLA technique of automatically adjusting feeds and/or speeds to an optimum by sensing cutting conditions and acting upon them
ADDENDUMThat portion of a gear tooth that extends from the pitch circle to the outside diameter.
ADDRESSAlphabetic character that defines the use to which the number that follows it is applied (ie x axis command).
ADDRESSA character or group of characters at the beginning of a word what identifies the data of allowing in the word
ADDRESS BLOCK FORMATA block format in which each word contains an address
ALARMError detected by the CNC, such as a program error, operator error, or hardware failure.
ALARM HISTORY DISPLAYStoring alarms detected by the CNC and displaying them on the screen.
ALGOL(Algorithmic Language) Language used to develop computer programmes by algorithm.
ALGORITHMA rule or procedure for solving a mathematical problem that frequently involves repetition of an operation
ALIGNTo adjust or set to a line or center.
ALLOWANCEThe prescribed difference in dimensions of mating parts to provide a certain class of fit.
ALLOYA metal formed by a mixture of two or more different metals
ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAYEquipment, such as a CRT, which is capable of displaying only letters, digits and special characters
ALPHANUMERIC OR ALPHAMERICA system in which the characters used are letters A through Z, and numerals 0 to 9
AMPLIFIERA signal gain device whose output is a function of its input
AMPLITUDETerm used to describe the magnitude of a simple wave or simple part of a complex. The largest or crest value measured from zero
ANALOGIn NC the term applies to a system vhich utilizes electrical voltage magnitudes or ratios to represent physical axis positions
ANALOG DATAThe information content of an analog signal as conveyed by the value of magnitude of seme characteristics of the signal such as the amplitude, phase, or frequency of a voltage, the amplitude or duration of a pulse, the angular position of a shaft, or the pressure of a fluid
ANALOG SIGNALSPhysical variables (e.g., distance, rotation) represented by electrical signals
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL (A/D) CONVERTERA device that changes physical motion or electrical voltage into digital factors
AND-GATEA signal circuit with two or more inputs. (Signal only if all inputs received coincident signals)
ANGLE IRONAn iron or steel structural member that has been cast, rolled, or bent (folded) so that its cross section is L-shaped.
ANGLE PLATEA precision holding fixture made of cast iron steel, or granite. The two principal faces are at right angles and may be slotted for holding the work or clamping to a table.
ANGULAR AXIS CONTROLControlling the movement of each of two controlled axes mounted at an angle other than a right angle. Programming is done in rectangular coordinates.
ANNEALINGThe controlled heating and cooling of a metal to remove stresses and to make it softer and easier to work with
ANVILA heavy iron or steel block upon which metal is forged or hammered, also the fixed jaw on a micrometer against which parts are measured.
APPLICATION PROGRAMMESComputer programmes designed and written to value a specific problem
APPROACH FORBIDDEN AREAThat part of a safety zone which a tool is forbidden to enter.
APRONThat portion of a lathe carriage that contains the clutches, gears, and levers for moving the carriage. It also protects the mechanism.
APT(Automatically Programmed Tools) programme system for multi-axis contouring programming. APT III - Provides for five axes of machine tool motion
ARBORA shaft or spindle for holding cutting tools; most usually on a milling machine.
ARBOR PRESSA hand-operated machine tool designed for applying high pressure for the purpose of pressing together or removing parts.
ARC CLOCKWISEAn arc generated by the co-ordinated motion of two axes in which curvature of the path of the tool with respect to the workpiece is clockwise, when viewing the plane of motion fran the positive direction of the perpendicular axis
ARC COUNTERCLOCKWISE(Substitute Counterclockwise for Clockwise in Arc Clockwise definition.)
ARCHITECTUREOperating characteristics of a control system, or control unit, or computer
ARCHIVINGExporting files and/or directories to an external storage device.
ARGUMENT SPECIFICATIONAssigning an actual value to a variable used in a custom macro program to be called.
ASCII(American Standard Code for Information Interchange) transmission code which has been established as an American Standard by the It is a code in which 7 bits are used to A data American Standards Association. Represent each character, also USASCII.
ASCII CODEInformation exchange code complying with the applicable ANSI standard. Used in numerical control.
ASSEMBLYThe fitting together of a number of parts to create a complete unit
ASSEMBLY DRAWINGThe drawing of a number of parts which shows how they fit together to construct a complete unit
ASSIST GASGas provided to the workpiece during laser processing. Oxygen, inert gas, or other gas is used depending on the workpiece material and the processing method.
ASSIST GAS CONTROLSeries of control relating to assist gas output, including switching of the gas type and control of the gas pressure. The optimum gas can be selected according to the material of the workpiece and the method of processing
ASSIST GAS PRESSURE OVERRIDEManual control in which the operator can temporarily change the assist gas pressure during operation. This function is used to create the same figure with different materials or stock thicknesses
ASYNCHRONOUSWithout any regular time relationship
ASYNCHRONOUS SUBPROGRAMPart program that can be triggered asynchronously to (irrespective of) the current program status by means of an interrupt signal (e.g. "highspeed NC input" signal).
ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSMISSIONThe transmission of information in irregular sections, with the time interval of each transmission varying and each section being identified by a stop and stop signal
ATTITUDE CONTROL AThree–dimensional control applied to the attitude of a processing head for which the nozzle tip position is fixed (zero offset type)
ATTITUDE CONTROL BThree–dimensional control applied to the attitude of an offset–type processing head
ATTRIBUTEA quality that is characteristic of a subject.
AUTOMATED ASSEMBLYThe application of automation to assembly
AUTOMATIC ACCELERATION/ DECELERATIONApplying acceleration/deceleration automatically when the tool starts or stops moving, in order to reduce mechanical stress imposed on the machine.
AUTOMATIC CORNER DECELERATIONChanging the cutting feedrate for machining a corner according to a difference in the corner angle between machining blocks or a difference in the cutting feedrate between axes.
AUTOMATIC CORNER OVERRIDEOverriding the cutting feedrate for an inner corner and changing the cutting feedrate for an inner arc.
AUTOMATIC GRINDING CENTERA CNC machining center used to grind and sharpen tools, inserts, etc.
AUTOMATIC INSERTION OF SEQUENCE NUMBERAutomatically inserting a sequence number into each block in EDIT mode during program creation based on manual data input.
AUTOMATIC OPERATIONOperation based on a program.
AUTOMATIC OVERRIDE FOR INNER CORNERAutomatically overriding a cutting feedrate at each end of an inner corner, produced based on a tool path that has been subjected to cutter compensation.
AUTOMATIC REFERENCE POSITION RETURNAutomatically feeding a specified axis to a reference position using a program command.
AUTOMATIC STOPA device which may be attached to any of several parts of a machine tool to stop the operation of the machine at any predetermined point.
AUTOMATIC TOOL CHANGERAlso known as ATC, an automatic tool changer system automatically changes the tools in a CNC machining center to fit whatever task is needed to process a product, all without the need for human operator interaction.
AUTOMATIC TOOL LENGTH MEASUREMENTIssuing an automatic measurement command to the CNC to move the tool to the measurement position, thereby allowing the CNC to automatically calculate the tool offset value.
AUTOMATIC TOOL OFFSETGiving an automatic measurement command to the CNC and moving the tool to a measurement position, thereby letting the CNC automatically measure tool offset values.
AUTOMATIONThe technique of making a process or system automatic. Automatically controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system, especially by electronic devices. In present day terminology, usually used in relation to a system whereby the electronic device controlling an apparatus or process also is interfaced to and ccmmuncates with a computer
AUXILIARY FUNCTIONA function of a machine other than the control of the co-ordinates of a workpiece or cutter - usually on-off type operations
AUXILIARY FUNCTION LOCKDisabling a specified M, S, or T function.
AXIS1. A principle direction along which a movement of the tool or workpiece occurs. 2. One of the reference lines of a co-ordinate system
AXIS (ROBOTS)A moving element of a robot or manipulator
AXIS CONTROL FUNCTIONGeneric name for control functions for controlled axes.
AXIS DESCRIPTIONSThe machine moves along its axes of motion. All movements along an axis are either in a positive or negative direction. Not all machines use the same system to identify axes. The descriptions used in this manual are commonly used to identify 3-axis mills.
AXIS IDENTIFIERIn compliance with DIN 66217, axes are identified as X, Y, Z for a right-handed rectangular Cartesian; coordinate system rotating in the clockwise direction. Rotary axes rotating around X, Y and Z are assigned the identifiers A, B and C. Additional axes, which are parallel to those specified, can be identified by other letters.
AXIS INHIBITPrevents movement of the selected slides with the power on
AXIS INTERCHANGESwitching the correspondence between a specified axis movement command and the machine axis that actually moves.
AXIS INTERCHANGEThe capability of inputting the information concerning one axis into the storage of another axis
AXIS INVERSIONThe reversal of normal plus and minus values along an axis which makes possible the machining of a left-handed part from right-handed programming or vice-versa. Same as mirror image
AXIS NAMEName given to an axis controlled by the CNC or PMC.
AXIS NUMBERNumber used to associate an axis name used in programming with the recognition number (controlled axis number) of the CNC control section and the recognition number (servo axis number) of a machine drive motor.
AXIS RECOMPOSITION (TWO-PATH CONTROL FUNCTION) Two-path synchronous, composite, and superposition control.
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